Resource Guide to an Anti-Oppressive Framework
Developed by the 2019 PYTA Conference Youth Advisory Committee
The interconnected nature of social categorizations such as race, class, and gender as they apply to a given individual or group, regarded as creating overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage.
a statement, action, or incident regarded as an instance of indirect, subtle, or unintentional discrimination against members of a marginalized group.
Many of the examples in this document are microaggressions.
adultism is defined as prejudice and accompanying systematic discrimination against young people.
Ex: Making comments like “you’re only insert age, what do you know about x topic?”
prejudicial attitudes towards older people, old age, and the aging process; discriminatory practices against older people; and institutional practices and policies that perpetuate stereotypes about elderly people. Also linked to Adultism.
Ex: Assuming that because someone is elderly they shouldn’t drive without any knowledge of their health status.
The assumption that a central, exclusive, amorous relationship is normal for humans, in that it is a universally shared goal, and that such a relationship is normative, in the sense that it should be aimed at in preference to other relationship types.
Read more: https://everydayfeminism.com/2016/04/amatonormativity-expectations/
Ex. Referring to someone as “just” a friend, devaluing friendship
Ex: Assuming that someone has a single partner, and that their relationship is sexual, romantic, and monogamous.
Anti Semitism is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jewish people.
Ex: Assuming Jewish people are cheap or greedy.
Arophobia is the fear and hatred of all people who are on the aromantic spectrum and/or express their aromanticism.
Ex. Pressuring someone to go on dates and/or enter into a romantic relationship
Ex. Believing that an aromantic person who enjoys sex is heartless or manipulative.
Biphobia (Bi Erasure)
Biphobia is the hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against bisexuality and toward bisexual people as a social group or as individuals.
Ex: Assuming bi folks are promiscuous and aren’t capable of commitment.
Ex: Assuming that bi folks are just going through a phase.
Ex. Assuming people in same-gender relationships are gay and people in different-gender relationships are straight
Christian hegemony is the everyday, pervasive, and systematic set of Christian values and beliefs, individuals and institutions that dominate all aspects of our society through the social, political, economic, and cultural power they wield.
Ex: National observation (usually resulting in day(s) off from work) of Christian based holidays such as Good Friday, Easter & Christmas
Ex: Wishing someone a “Merry Christmas” despite not knowing their religious beliefs, thus assuming they are Christian.
Cissexism is the belief that transgender / non-binary people are inherently inferior to cisgender (denoting or relating to a person whose sense of personal identity and gender corresponds with their gender assigned at birth) people, resulting in the oppression of gender variant, non-binary and trans identities.
Ex: Using phrases like “ladies and gentlemen” which assumes that all of the folks you are talking to have a binary gender (are men and women)
Ex: Asking someone what their “real” (ie. biological) gender is.
A form of prejudice or discrimination in which people with lighter skin are treated better than those with darker skin. Different than racism in that it impacts people within the same racial group, stemming from White Supremacy. Proximity to whiteness is more valuable.
Ex: Beauty campaigns tend to highlight and lift up white and light skin folks as attractive.
Ex: Telling someone “You’re attractive for a dark skin person.”
Elitism is the belief or attitude that individuals who form an elite — a select group of people with a certain ancestry, intrinsic quality, high intellect, wealth, special skills, or experience — are more likely to be constructive to society as a whole, and therefore deserve influence or authority greater than that of others
Ex: Assuming that someone with a college degree is more intelligent than someone without one.
Blanket term for a type of oppression that people with large bodies experience. Although we are all affected by fatphobia, we are affected at different levels and to different degrees.
Ex: Equating someone’s health status to their body size.
Femmephobia is hatred of all people who are perceived as femme, feminine, or effeminate, regardless of their gender.
Ex: Phrases like “no fats, no fems”
Ex: Equating things that are feminine as weaker or softer.
Islamophobia is the irrational fear, hatred of, or prejudice against the religion of Islam or Muslims, especially when seen as a geopolitical force or the source of terrorism.
Read more: http://www.apa.org/monitor/2017/04/islamophobia.aspx
Ex: Assuming that someone who is visibly Muslim is of Arab descent, as there are Muslims of other ethnicities and races.
A belief that attraction to one gender is superior to or more legitimate than a bisexual, pansexuality, or other non-monosexual orientations.
Ex: Refusing to date a bisexual person because they could be “less trustworthy”.
Rooted in white supremacy, racism is the hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against people of color.
Ex: A white person calling the cops on a person of color because they feel they don’t belong in their neighborhood.
Ex. Making assumptions based on someone’s race (ex. that an Asian person is Chinese or a latinx persons speaks Spanish)
Ex. A white person taking space from a person of color through behaviors such as constantly interrupting, cutting in front of a person of color, or touching a person of color without their consent.
Ingrained and institutionalized prejudice, attitudes and behaviors based on a person’s sex or perceived gender.
Ex: Categorizing certain activities as unladylike that are socially acceptable for men/boys to do, like being promiscuous.
Ex: Discriminating against and devaluing women and girls.
Ex: “Boys shouldn’t cry.”
Transphobia is a range of negative attitudes, feelings or actions toward transgender, gender non-conforming and non-binary individuals, or towards the trans community, based on the perceived gender of the person.
Ex: Asking a trans person what their “real” name is.
Ex: Misgendering someone (such as not referring to them with incorrect gendered language, including pronouns).